Hafnium he yit-chúng fa-ho̍k ngièn-su, fa-ho̍k fù-ho vì Hf, ngièn-chṳ́ su-muk he 72.

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Lide, D. R., pian. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th pán.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
Hafnium,  72Hf
ngoi-kôn
steel gray


Spectral lines of hafnium (400–700 nm)
Kî-pún sin-sit
Miàng, fù-ho hafnium, Hf
ngoi-hìn steel gray
Hafnium chhai chû-khì-péu ke vi-chi
Khiâng (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Hoi (hî-yù hi-thí)
Lithium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Beryllium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Phìn (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Than (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Tham (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Yông (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Fuk (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Nái (hî-yù hi-thí)
Na̍p (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Magnesium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Lî (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Si̍t (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Lìn (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Liù-vòng (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Liu̍k (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Argon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Kap (kán-kîm-su̍k)
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Scandium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
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Phî (lui-kîm-su̍k)
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Chhiu (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
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Rhodium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Palladium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Ngiùn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Cadmium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
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Antimony (lui-kîm-su̍k)
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Tién (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Xenon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Caesium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Barium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Lanthanum (lanthanum-hi)
Cerium (lanthanum-hi)
Praseodymium (lanthanum-hi)
Neodymium (lanthanum-hi)
Promethium (lanthanum-hi)
Samarium (lanthanum-hi)
Europium (lanthanum-hi)
Gadolinium (lanthanum-hi)
Terbium (lanthanum-hi)
Dysprosium (lanthanum-hi)
Holmium (lanthanum-hi)
Erbium (lanthanum-hi)
Thulium (lanthanum-hi)
Ytterbium (lanthanum-hi)
Lutetium (lanthanum-hi)
Hafnium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Tantalum (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Tungsten (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Rhenium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Osmium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
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Pha̍k-kîm (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
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Radium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Actinium (actinium-hi)
Thorium (actinium-hi)
Protactinium (actinium-hi)
Uranium (actinium-hi)
Neptunium (actinium-hi)
Plutonium (actinium-hi)
Americium (actinium-hi)
Curium (actinium-hi)
Berkelium (actinium-hi)
Californium (actinium-hi)
Einsteinium (actinium-hi)
Fermium (actinium-hi)
Mendelevium (actinium-hi)
Nobelium (actinium-hi)
Lawrencium (actinium-hi)
Rutherfordium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Dubnium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Seaborgium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Bohrium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Hassium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
ngièn-chṳ́ sì-sú 72
ngièn-chṳ́-liòng (±) 178.49(2)[1]
ngièn-su lui-phe̍t   ko-thu kîm-su̍k
Chhu̍k, fûn-khî 4 chhu̍k, d-block
chû-khì period 6
thien-chṳ́ phài-lie̍t [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
vu̍t-lî sin-chṳt
Siông ku-thí
yùng-tiám 2506 K ​(2233 °C, ​4051 °F)
pui-tiám 4876 K ​(4603 °C, ​8317 °F)
Me̍t-thu near Sit-vûn 13.31 g·cm−3
12 g·cm−3
Yùng-fa-ngie̍t 27.2 kJ·mol−1
Chîn-fat-ngie̍t 648 kJ·mol−1
Ngie̍t-yùng-liong 25.73 J·mol−1·K−1
chîn-hi-ap
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
chhai T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
Ngièn-chṳ́ sin-chṳt
Yông-fa-su 4, 3, 2, 1, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Thien-fu-sin Pauling scale: 1.3
Thien-lì-nèn 1st: 658.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1440 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2250 kJ·mol−1
Ngièn-chṳ́ pan-kang empirical: 159 pm
Khiung-ka pan-kang 175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Chîn-thí keu-chhohexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for hafnium
Sâng-suk thin rod 3010 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Ngie̍t-phàng-chong 5.9 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)
Ngie̍t-chhòn-thô-li̍t 23.0 W·m−1·K−1
Thien-chú-li̍t 331 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Chhṳ̀-sin paramagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 78 GPa
Shear modulus 30 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1520–2060 MPa
Brinell hardness 1450–2100 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7440-58-6
Le̍k-sú
Hí-miàng after Hafnia. Latin for: Copenhagen, where it was discovered
Yi-chhet Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
Hoat-kiàn kap siōng chá ê tông-ūi-sò͘ Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
Chui vún-thin ke thùng-vi-su
Chú vùn-chông: hafnium ke thùng-vi-su
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 0.350 172Lu
174Hf 0.162% 2×1015 y α 2.495 170Yb
176Hf 5.206% (α) 2.2550 172Yb
177Hf 18.606% (α) 2.2449 173Yb
178Hf 27.297% (α) 2.0832 174Yb
178m2Hf syn 31 y IT 2.446 178Hf
179Hf 13.629% (α) 1.8065 175Yb
180Hf 35.1% (α) 1.2828 176Yb
182Hf trace 8.9×106 y β 0.373 182Ta
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed